Head injury and concussion

Most head injuries aren't serious. You don't usually need to go to hospital and should make a full recovery within 2 weeks.

Call 999 if someone has hit their head and has:

  • been knocked out and hasn't woken up
  • difficulty staying awake or keeping their eyes open
  • a fit (seizure)
  • problems with their vision
  • clear fluid coming from their ears or nose
  • bleeding from their ears or bruising behind their ears
  • numbness or weakness in part of their body
  • problems with walking, balance, understanding, speaking or writing
  • hit their head in a serious accident, such as a car crash

Also call 999 if you can't get someone to A&E safely.

How to treat a minor head injury

If you don't need to go to hospital, you can usually look after yourself or your child at home.

It's normal to have symptoms such as a slight headache, or feeling sick or dazed, for up to 2 weeks.

To help recovery:


  • hold an ice pack (or a bag of frozen peas in a tea towel) to the injury regularly for short periods in the first few days to bring down any swelling
  • rest and avoid stress – you or your child don't need to stay awake if you're tired
  • take paracetamol to relieve pain or a headache – don't use ibuprofen or aspirin as they could cause the injury to bleed
  • make sure an adult stays with you or your child for at least the first 24 hours – call 111 for advice if there's no one who can stay with you


  • go back to work or school until you're feeling better
  • drive until you feel you've fully recovered
  • play contact sports for at least 3 weeks – children should avoid rough play for a few days
  • take drugs or drink alcohol until you're feeling better
  • take sleeping pills while you're recovering – unless a doctor advises you to

See a GP if:

  • your or your child's symptoms last more than 2 weeks
  • you're not sure if it's safe for you to drive or return to work, school or sports
[Last reviewed 2018-04-04]